CULTURE

伐採から建設まで「0km」でつくるCLT建築

間伐材というローカルな資材でつくる先進的でエコロジカルな建築〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉

CULTURE2022.03.22
〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

スペイン、バルセロナにあるコルセロラ自然公園にて、公園内の間伐材を使い、資材調達、製材から建設まで1km以内で完結したCLT建築〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉。

未来の建築・都市を構想し、構築することを使命としている教育機関「カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)」が行っている、0kmでつくるエコロジー建築プロジェクト「Voxel」のプロトタイプとして建設された小屋です。

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

(以下、IAACから提供されたプレスキットのテキストの抄訳)

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉は、IACCの「先進エコロジー建築とバイオシティにおける修士課程(MAEBB)」の学生と研究者のチームが開発しているプロジェクト「Voxel」にて、1人の居住者の生活が自己完結できるよう設計された隔離小屋である。

また、素材の保護を環境にやさしい方法で行うため、日本の「焼杉」の技術を応用している。

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

「0km」の木造建築

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉は、現場から半径1km以内で伐採された木材を、現地で製材、乾燥、加工、プレスして作成したCLTパネルでつくられた建築である。コルセロラ自然公園の木々の成長と生物多様性を促進するため策定された「持続可能な森林管理計画」に基づき、毎年一定量確保できる間伐材を活用している。

「Voxel」プロジェクトは、気候変動に対抗する建設の主要材料として注目されているCLTを用いた、「新世代のグリーンビルディング」という関心に応えたものである。

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

構造用集成材であるCLT建築の未来

間伐材とした伐採された40本の松を3cmの板状にカットし、3カ月の乾燥期間を経て現地の大工により製材、30枚以上のCLTパネルにプレスされ、3.6m×3.6mの立方体の建築が組み立てられ、コルクの断熱材により包まれている

パネルの接合には金属を使わず、木ダボ等のような、より低炭素な素材を使用している。

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

外装にはCLTの製造工程で発生する端材を活用し、焼杉の技術を応用したレインスクリーンパネルを取り付けている。

通常、原木を長方形の板状に製材する際に発生する不定型な端材は廃棄されるが、この端材を活用することで、木の有機的な複雑さを持ったファサードが誕生した。

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

自給自足する生活環境

キャビンには、3つのソーラーパネルとバッテリーストレージが配備されており、1人の居住者が使用する照明とデバイスの電源として設計されている。水システムには、雨水収集と中水リサイクル、そして調理や暖房用の燃料と衛生肥料を生成する自己完結型のバイオガスシステムが組み込まれている。

 

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉は、ローカルな材料と工業化された技術により、「先進的でエコロジカルな建築」が実現できるということを証明している。

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Photograph: Adrià Goula

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

©︎IAAC Valldaura Labs

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

©︎IAAC Valldaura Labs

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

©︎IAAC Valldaura Labs

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

©︎IAAC Valldaura Labs

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

©︎IAAC Valldaura Labs

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

©︎IAAC Valldaura Labs

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

©︎IAAC Valldaura Labs

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

©︎IAAC Valldaura Labs

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

©︎IAAC Valldaura Labs

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

©︎IAAC Valldaura Labs

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Axonometric

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Plan

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Section

〈Voxel検疫キャビン〉カタルーニャ先端建築研究所(IAAC)

Water, Waste System Axonometric

以下、IAACのリリース(英文)です。

IAAC BUILDS A PROTOTYPE OF A “QUARANTINE” CABIN IN VALLDAURA USING ZERO KM STRUCTURAL WOOD

  • The Voxel is a prototype of an advanced ecological building constructed with natural KM.0 materials and industrialized techniques in the natural park of Collserola (Barcelona, Spain). The project proposes a space for confinement as an architectural solution to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • The project researches the ecological transformation of wood as a structural, thermal, and constructive material from sustainable forest management because of its capacity to store CO2 in buildings. In addition, the Japanese Shou Sugi Ban technique was used to protect this material in an environmentally friendly way.
  • The Voxel is a project developed by the team of students and researchers of the Master in Advanced Ecological Buildings and Biocities (MAEBB) of the Institute of Advanced Architecture of Catalonia (IAAC) which is developed in Valldaura Labs, under the direction of Daniel Ibáñez and Vicente Guallart.
  • The project explores the development of the circular bio economy applied to the construction industry.

Barcelona, March 2021.- The Collserola natural park, in the surroundings of Barcelona, is the setting for The Voxel project, produced by a team made up of students, professionals and experts from the Master in Advanced Ecological Buildings and Biocities (MAEBB) of the Institute of Advanced Architecture of Catalonia (IAAC) Valldaura Labs. It is a quarantine cabin designed for the self-confinement of one occupant. The project was designed entirely under quarantine conditions and is an architectural response to the current crisis.

The cabin is very near to the headquarters of Valldaura Labs, the campus created by the Institute of Advanced Architecture of Catalonia (IAAC), focused on research and education on self-sufficient habitat.

The Voxel was designed and built during the MAEBB 2019-2020 master’s degree, with the consultancy of a group of experts formed by the directors of the master’s degree Daniel Ibáñez and Vicente Guallart, the energy expert Oscar Aceves, the water expert Jochen Scheerer, and the architects Elena Orte and Guillermo Sevillano, among others. It was built in just 5 months, turning the dense forest of Collserola, Barcelona, into the home of a truly ambitious project in the area of ecological architecture.

ZERO KM MATERIALS

Designed as a quarantine cabin, the house can accommodate one occupant for 14 days, providing all material needs during self-confinement.

The Voxel, or volumetric pixel, is a 12 square meter cross-laminated timber (CLT) structure made of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis) that was milled, dried, processed, and pressed on-site at Valldaura. All timber used in the project was harvested within a radius of less than 1 kilometer from the construction site.

Based on a sustainable forest management plan approved in Collserola, a certain forest volume can be obtained each year to encourage the growth of smaller trees and biodiversity, because forest biomass grows by 3% each year and growing trees absorb more CO2.

The project responds to the interest in promoting a new generation of green buildings using structural cross-laminated timber (CLT), which is suitable to become a key material for constructing buildings that combat climate change.

STRUCTURAL CROSS-LAMINATED TIMBER (CLT) THE FUTURE OF BUILDING

To supply the raw materials of the project, 40 pine trees were harvested and cut into 3cm boards, and stacked to dry for three months. After they reached the proper humidity level, each board was taken into the Valldaura Labs carpentry to be processed into hundreds of pine lamellas. Each lamella was then encoded into a specific sequence, tagged, and pressed into more than 30 structural CLT panels which were assembled into a 3.6×3.6m cube.

In a feat of obsessive commitment to locality and understanding the material flows of architecture, every lamella of every panel was tracked and traced, ensuring that every single wooden element of the house can be accurately traced back to the point where the tree it came from once stood. 

The panels were held together metal-free with lap joints and wooden dowels, inspired by a commitment to use less carbon-intensive materials. The structure was then wrapped in a layer of cork insulation and mounted with an innovative series of rain-screen panels made from waste material created during the CLT production process. While processing raw pine boards to get perfectly rectangular lamella, the organic edge of the board usually goes to waste.

By reimagining this linear cycle of material selection and disposal into a more circular form, these off-cuts were turned into a facade that showcases the organic complexity of the tree that is usually hidden in most wooden constructions.

By advancing the design a step further, each off-cut was parametrically organized into a gradient that corresponds to functions within the cabin. Certain sections of the skin also extrude away from the cabin corresponding to metabolic components like water tanks and an outdoor shower. The roof of the cabin features a series of garden boxes with elaborate joints milled with computer-numerical-control (CNC) machinery (no screws, no glue), which holds a variety of local plants and funnel rainwater into a collection tank below.

Cork insulation was placed over the wooden panels, and a burnt wooden skin was placed over it, using the Japanese Shou Sugi Ban technique, which protects the building from the rain.

MASTER IN ADVANCED ECOLOGICAL BUILDINGS AND BIOCITIES (MAEBB)

The Master in Advanced Ecological Buildings and Bio-cities (MAEBB) is an immersive 11-month program in which students learn to design ecological projects, parametric design techniques and the transformation of locally sourced materials. The program ends with the collective and supervised design and construction of a small building to experience all phases of the construction process to create the green buildings of the future. The Voxel was built with the participation of 17 students and 5 volunteers from 15 countries, during the months of April to August 2020, in the middle of the coronavirus pandemic.

CIRCULAR METABOLISM

Valldaura Labs is known for its interest in exploring the limits of self-sufficiency, trying to provide for all living needs without relying too heavily on the importation of goods or services. The Voxel strives for similar independence to achieve its program as a quarantine cabin, made possible by a comprehensively designed water-energy-waste scheme. 

The cabin is equipped with three solar panels and  independent battery storage, specifically designed to power the lighting and devices for a single resident. The water system incorporates both rainwater collection and grey-water recycling, as well as black-water treatment within a self-contained biogas system that generates usable cooking or heating fuel and sanitary fertilizer as by-products. Now that the construction is complete, The Voxel stands as visceral proof of a forthcoming advanced and ecological architectural paradigm that uses hyper- local materials and industrialized techniques.

Just as the natural park supplies the city with a vital supply of oxygen from its trees, the Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia’s (IAAC) Valldaura Labs and its Master in Advanced Ecological Buildings & Biocities (MAEBB) program have committed to supplying the knowledge of the forest to the urban environment through design. Completing construction on two full-scale houses in just two years, MAEBB has thoroughly embodied the spirit of learning-by-making, demonstrating the value of putting design research to the test with built works. 

CREDITS THE VOXEL_A Quarantine Cabin

Directed by: Vicente Guallart & Daniel Ibañez

Academic Coordination by: Michael Salka

Developed by: Master in Advanced Ecological Buildings and Biocities students, class of 2020: Alex Hadley, Anfisa Mishchenko, Sena Kocaoğlu, Camille Garnier, Dania Aburouss, Ester Camps Bastida, Filippo Vegezzi, Giada Mirizzi, Juan Gabriel Secondo, Maitri Joy Uka, Camila Fajardo, Nathalie Botbol, Shreya Sharma, Yue Zhang, Zhiqian Liu, Rafael Abboud, Irene Rodriguez Perez

Hosted by: Valldaura Labs at the Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalunya

Valldaura Management by: Laia Pifarré 

Sponsored by: Saltoki, Miogás, Mausa, Distribució Sostenible, Bestiario, Henkel, Cork 2000 & Tallfusta

Guided by: Oscar Aceves, Miquel Rodriguez, Jochen Scheerer, Elena Orte, Guillermo Sevillano, Eduardo Chamorro, David Valldeoriola, Miguel Nevado, Jordi Prat, Gustavo Escudero

Assisted by: Bruno Ganem, Luis Leveri, Akshay Mhamunkar, Daniel Nahmias, Layth Sidiq, Kya Kerner

Photographed by: Adrià Goula

 

「MAEBB Final Project – Voxel Quarantine Cabin」IAAC公式サイト

https://iaac.net/maebb-voxel-quarantine-cabin/

 

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